Biofeedback Research

Neurofeedback Tucson AZ Smiling Woman

After nearly a decade of working with people from a mix of conditions there seem to be 4 underlying factors in nearly all of the cases. This is what our clinic's approach is built upon. Our Tucson neurofeedback specialists are here to help.

See links and medical studies below to view the research our clinic's approach has been established upon.

  • 1. Address Mast Cell Dysfunction/Sensitivity Triggers

    This will be the #1 most talked about underlying cause for nearly all chronic conditions. Especially Autoimmune and Inflammatory Conditions. It's a tricky condition with nasty effects.

    We address this through both Biofeedback AND Neurofeedback Treatments.

    Click here to see a list of symptoms associated with MCD.

  • 2. Down-Regulate Inflammation

    Cytokines, Chemokines, Prostaglandins. These all have been connected to inflammation, pain and Mast Cell Dysfunction.

    Inflammation can show up in neurological disorders, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, anxiety/depression, GI issues & more.

    We do this through Biofeedback, Neurofeedback and Frequency Specific Microcurrent - all 3 forms have decades of research backing their effectiveness boasting a success rate of more than 80%.

    Click here to learn how this impacts us.

  • 3. Drastically Reduce Stress & Balance the HPA Axis

    Stresses the #1 Killer and Cause of all conditions. We hear it, we say it, we're told it. But what the heck do we do about it?

    Biofeedback & Neurofeedback are phenomenal allies to: dramatically reduce our stress load, retrial our brain and nervous system to deal with stress more effectively and supporting our own ability to regulate our stress responses on our own.

    Click here.

  • 4. Brain & Limbic System Retraining

    Through Neurofeedback and other Brain Retraining Programs we support each person's Brain and Neurology to release feedback loops that keep them locked into recurrent: anxiety, pain, depression, migraines, seizures, chronic health ailments etc.

    Click here to learn more.


Some Research and Studies on Biofeedback, Neurofeedback and FSM

While not an exhaustive or complete list, this research will begin to help you understand why these approaches are literally changing medicine and the vast application of these technologies and how they can support the body's innate healing.


Mast Cell Disorder / Mast Cell Activation Syndrome / Histamine Intolerances Research

Neuro-inflammation, Blood-brain Barrier, Seizures and Autism

Neuro-inflammation, Blood-brain Barrier, Seizures and Autism (2)

An Overview on Immune System and Migraine

The Immune System and Headache

What Drive Chronic Pain

Cytokine Polymorphism in Patients with Migraine: Some Suggestive Clues of Migraine and Inflammation


List of Typical MCAS/MCD symptoms:

How We Approach Mast Cell Disorder/Histamine Intolerance

Histamine Intolerances - What is Mast Cell Disorder?


Published Papers on Frequency Specific Microcurrent (FSM)

Click here to read the papers


Cleveland Clinic FSM Research

Frequency-Specific Microcurrent

Frequency-Specific Microcurrent Fact Sheet


LENS NEUROFEEDBACK RESEARCH

Sumary: The LENS (Low Energy Neurofeedback System): A Clinical Outcomes Study on One Hundred Patients at Stone Mountain Center, New York:

Introduction. The Low Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS) developed by Dr. Len Ochs (2006a) uses feedback in the form of a radio frequency carrier wave, administered at a positive offset frequency from the person's own dominant EEG frequency. Although it is an unusual biofeedback procedure, the feedback being invisible and the subject passive, clinical evidence supports the efficacy of the LENS across a spectrum of conditions. Published research studies (Schoenberger, Shifflet, Esty, Ochs, & Matheis, 2001; Donaldson, Sella, & Mueller, 1998; Mueller, Donaldson, Nelson, & Layman, 2001) have shown the effectiveness of the LENS method with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and with fibromyalgia. No study to date has evaluated LENS treatment across the spectrum of disorders and with a significantly large sample. This study was devised to address these issues. The study hypotheses were that the LENS treatment would be effective in reducing both systematic symptom ratings and measurements of EEG amplitudes, and that the therapeutic effect would produce the most rapid improvements in early sessions of treatment.

Method. “Blinded” research associates selected the first 100 patients from approximately 300 case files that met the following inclusion criteria: the person had received at least 10 treatment sessions, completed an initial CNS questionnaire, and that session-by-session subjective symptom ratings (SSRF) had been obtained. Patients ranged from 6 to 80 years old, almost evenly divided between male and female, with a wide range of symptoms and comorbid DSM-IV diagnoses.

Results. Data were statistically analyzed for significance and corelational variables. Average symptom ratings across 15 major problem areas (e.g., anxiety, mood disturbance, attentional problems, fatigue, pain, sleep problems, etc.) showed significant improvements (p < .0001) from beginning to end of treatment. After an average of only 20 treatments the mean average of patient symptom ratings (0–10) declined from 7.92 to 3.96, a 50% improvement. Equally significant was the drop in EEG amplitude at the highest amplitude electrode site (HAS; p < .0001) as well as a lesser but still significant decrease at Cz (p < .002). A final analysis of the average symptom score with the HAS score showed them to be highly correlated. All hypotheses were confirmed.

Conclusions. LENS treatment appears to be very efficient and effective in rapidly reducing a wide range of symptoms. It particularly produces rapid improvements in the first five to six sessions.

Click Here to Read the Article


Disclaimer: Biofeedback and Neurofeedback have been approved for treatment of pain in chronic pain, fibromyalgia, skeletal pain and migraine, as well as for the supportive treatment of mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety and related sleep disorders. All other applications of are not (yet) recognized by conventional medicine due to lack of evidence in the sense of conventional medicine.

The studies and case collections listed here are not recognized by conventional medicine due to lack of evidence in the sense of conventional medicine.

Below is a summary of the studies.


“Pain Treatment“ Study Report

Chronic or Acute Pain, Myalgia, FibromyalgiaChronic:

Stephen I. Zimmerman, R. P. T., Fred N. Lerner; Biofeedback and electromedicine: Reduce the cycle of pain-spasm-pain in low-back patients; American Journal of Electromedicine; 1989 Jun, S. 108- 120

Jerry T. Holubec; Cumulative Response from Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) for Chronic Pain; Practical Pain Management; 2009 Nov-Dec (n=525)

Acute:

Rockstroh G., Schleicher W., Krummenauer F.; The advantage during a stationary follow-up-treatment applying microcurrrents on patients after implantation of a knee totalendoprothesis - a prospective ran- domised clinical case study; Rehabilitation 2010, 49: p. 173-179

Pain relief in fibromyalgia (GFT): Roizenblatt et al.; Site-specific effects of transcranial direct current sti- mulation on sleep and pain in fibromyalgia: a randomized, sham-controlled study. Pain Practice: The offi- cial Journal of the World Institute of Pain; 2007; 7: S. 297-306

Fregni et al.; A randomized, shamcontrolled, proof of principle study of transcranial direct current stimu- lation for the treatment of pain in fibro-myalgia; Arthritis and Rheumatism; 2006, 54: S. 3988-3998

Daniel L. Kirsch; Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia; Practical Pain Man- agement, Electromedicine; Sept. 2006; S. 60-64

A. S. Lichtbroun, M. M. Raicer, R. B. Smith; The treatment of fibromyalgia with cranial electrotherapy sti- mulation; Journal of clinical rheumatology; 2001 Apr; 7(2): S. 72-8; discussion 78

Headache, Migraine Tension headache:

Seymour Solomon, Arthur Elkind, Fred Freitag, R. Michael Gallagher, Kenneth Moore, Bernard Swerd- low, Stanley Malkin; Safety and Effectiveness of Cranial Electrotherapy in the Treatment of Tension Head- ache; Headache-The Journal of Head and Face pain; July 1989, Vol. 29, Nr. 7, S. 445– 450

D. L. Kirsch; Electromedical Treatment of Headaches; Practical pain management, Electromedicine; 2006 Nov/Dec, S. 58-65

Migraine:

P. Brotman; Transcranial Electrotherapy, Low-intensity transcranial electrostimulation improves the effi- cacy of thermal biofeedback and quieting re ex training in the treatment of classical migraine headache; American Journal of Electromedicine; 1989 Sep, S. 120-123

A. Antal, N. Kriener, N. Lang, K. Boros, W. Paulus; Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the visual cortex in the prophylactic treatment of migraine; Cephalalgia; 2011 Mai; 31(7): S. 820-8. Epub 2011 Mar 11

Knee Arthrosis / Degenerative Knee Joint Disorders

L. E. Bertolucci, T. Grey; Clinical comparative study of microcurrent electrical stimulation to mid-laser and placebo treatment in degenerative joint disease of the temporomandibular joint; Cranio: the journal of craniomandibular practice, 1995 Apr; 13(2): S. 116-120

TMJ Pain

Degenerative disease of the temporomandibular joint:

L. E. Bertolucci, T. Grey; Clinical comparative study of microcurrent electrical stimulation to mid-laser and placebo treatment in degenerative joint disease of the temporomandibular joint; Cranio: the journal of craniomandibular practice, 1995 Apr; 13(2): S. 116- 120

Arthralgia

L. E. Bertolucci, T. Grey; Clinical comparative study of microcurrent electrical stimulation to mid-laser and placebo treatment in degenerative joint disease of the temporomandibular joint; Cranio: the journal of craniomandibular practice, 1995 Apr; 13(2): S. 116-120


Pain in General

Postoperative:

G. Rockstroh, W. Schleicher, F. Krummenauer; The advantage during a stationary follow-up-treatment applying microcurrrents on patients after implantation of a knee totalendoprothesis - a prospective randomized clinical case study; Rehabilitation 2010, 49: p. 173-179

T. M. Sarhan; Doghem; Effect of microcurrent skin patch on the epidural fentanyl requirements for post operative pain relief of total hip arthroplasty; Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology; 2009; S. 411-415

Other:

Fregni et al.; A sham-controlled, phase II trial of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of central pain in traumatic spinal cord injury; Pain; 2006; 122: S. 197-209

M. D. Soler, H. Kumru, R. Pelayo, J. Vidal, J. M. Tormos, F. Fregni, X. Navarro, A. Pascual-Leone; Effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation and visual illusion on neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury; Brain: A Journal of Neurology; 2010 Sep, 133(9): S. 2565-77. Epub 2010 Aug 4

Kaya, Kamanli et al.; Direct current therapy with/without Lidocaine Iontophoresis in myofascial pain syn-drome; Bratisl Lek Listy; 2009; 110 (3), S. 185-191

Back Pain

Joseph S. H. A. Koopman, Dorien H. Vrinten M. D., Albert J. M. van Wijck; Efficacy of microcurrent therapy in the treatment of chronic nonspecific back pain: a pilot study; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009

Muscle Pain

D. Curtis; S. Fallows; M. Morris; C. McMakin; The efficacy of frequency specific microcurrent therapy on delayed onset muscle soreness; Journal of body work and movement therapies; 2010 Juli; Elsevier


Studies and Case Reports – Psyche

Depression

P. S. Boggio; S. P. Rigonatti; R. B. Ribeiro; M. L. Myczkowski; M. A. Nitsche; A. Pascual-Leone; F. Fregni; A randomized, double-blind clinical trial on the efficacy of cortical direct current stimulation for the treatment of major depression; International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology; 2008 Mar, 11(2): S. 249-54; Epub 2007 Jun 11

Fregni et al.; Treatment of major depression with transcranial direct current stimulation; Journal of The International Society for Bipolar Disorders; 2006; 8: S. 203-204

Marshall F. Gilula; Daniel L. Kirsch; Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Review: A Safer Alternative to Psycho- pharmaceuticals in the Treatment of Depression; Journal of Neurotherapy; 2005, Vol. 9(2), S. 7-26; The Ha- worth Press

Improvement of working memory in depression:
Fregni et al.; Cognitive effects of repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with depression; Depression and Anxiety Journal; 2006; 23: S. 482-484

Anxiety States

Ray B. Smith; Frank N. Shiromoto; The Use of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation to Block Fear Perception in Phobic Patients; Life Balance International, Current Therapeutic Research; 1992, Vol. 51, Nr. 2, S. 249-254

Stress

Ronald R. Mellen et al.; Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) and the Reduction of Stress Symptom in a Sheriff ́s Jail Security and Petrol Officer Population: A Pilot Study; American Jails, 2008 Nov/Dez, 22, 5, Doc- stoc, S. 32

Aggression

A. Childs; Cranial electrotherapy stimulation reduces aggression in a violent retarded population: a prelimi- nary report; The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and clinical Neurosciences; 2005 Herbst; 17(4): S. 548-51

Insomnia

Marshall F. Gilula; Daniel L. Kirsch; Cranial electro therapy (CES) in the Treatment of Insomnia: A Review and Meta-analysis; Journal of Neurotherapy; 2005, Vol. 9(2), S. 7-26; the Haworth Press

Lack of Concentration

S. Southworth; The family institute and Associates; A study of the effects of CES on attention and con-centration; Integrative physiological and behavioural science; Jan-Mar 1999, Vol. 34, No. 1, S. 43-53

Learning Disability (in Alzheimers's )

Improvement in word recognition:
Ferrucci et al.; Transcranial direct current stimulation improves recognition memory in Alzheimer disease; Neurology; 2008 June 4; epub ahead of print

Withdrawal from Smoking

William S. Eidelmann; Control of cigarette cravings with cranial electrotherapy stimulation; Townsend letter; 2009, June


Studies and Case Reports - Infections

Shingles

C. McMakin; Non-pharmacologic treatment of shingles; Mai 2010; Practical Pain Management; S. 24-29 5.4 Studies and Case Reports - Neurology

Memory Improvement in Alzheimer's

Ferrucci et al.; Transcranial direct current stimulation improves recognition memory in Alzheimer dis- ease; Neurology; 2008 June 4; epub ahead of print

Tinnitus

C. H. Chouard, B. Meyer, D. Maridat; Transcutaneous electrotherapy for severe tinnitus; Acts Otolaryn- gol; 1981; 91: S. 415-22

M. Engelberg, W. Bauer; Transcutaneous electrical stimulation for tinnitus; Laryngoscope 1985; 95: S. 1167-72

Ronald L. Steenerson, Gave W. Cronin; Treatment of tinnitus with electrical stimulation; Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery; 1999 Nov; Vol. 121, S. 1-4

F. Fregni et al.; Transient tinnitus suppression induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation; European Journal of Neurology; Sept. 2006; Vol. 13( 9), S. 996–1001

Stroke

Motor function improvement:
Boggio et al; Repeated sessions of noninvasive brain DC stimulation is associated with motor function

improvement in stroke patients; Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience; 2007; 25: S. 123-129

Reaction times improvement: Hummel et al; Effects of brain polarization on reaction times and pinch force in chronic stroke; BMC Neuroscience; 2006, 7: S. 73

Parkinson

F. Fregni, P. S. Boggio, M. C. Santos, M. Lima, A. L. Vieira, S. P. Rigonatti, M. T. A. Silva, E. R. Barbosa,M. A. Nitsche; Noninvasive cortical stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation in Parkinson ́s Disease; 2006, Movement Disorders, Vol. 21, Nr. 10, S. 1693-1702

Pain in Parkinson:

H. D. Rintala; G. Tan; P. Willson; S. Bryant Mon; E. C. H. Lail; Feasibility of Using Cranial Electrothera- py Stimulation for Pain in Persons with Parkinson Disease; Research Article, SAGE-Hindawi access to re- search, Parkinson ́s Disease 2010 Vol., 2010 Article ID 569154 S. 1-8

Parkinson (pain; rehabilitation):
J. A. Williams, M.A.; M. Imamura; F. Fregni; Updates on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation in phys-

ical and rehabilitation medicine; Journal of Rehabilitational Medicine; 2009; 41: S. 305-311

Neuritis/Neuropathic pain:

Soler, H. Kumru, R. Pelayo, J. Vidal, J. M. Tormos, F. Fregni, X. Navarro, A. Pascual-Leone; Effectivenessof transcranial direct current stimulation and visual illusion on neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury; Brain: A Journal of Neurology; 2010 Sep, 133(9): S. 2565-77. Epub 2010 Aug 4

Epilepsy

D. M. Durand; M. Bikson; Suppression and control of epileptiform activity by electrical stimulation: A re- view; Proceedings of the IEEE; Juli 2001, Vol. 89, Nr. 7, S. 1065-1082

F. Fregni et al.; A controlled clinical trial of cathodal DC polarization in patients with refractory epilep- sy; International League Against Epilepsy; Epilepsia, 2006, 47(2): S. 335-342; Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

M. A. Nitsche; W. Paulus; Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Protocols in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Current State and Perspectives; Neurotherapeutics: The Journal of the American Society for Experimental Neu- roTherapeutics; April 2009; Vol. 6, S. 244-250

Multiple Sclerosis

Ray B. Smith; The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of multiple sclerosis; The original internist, Sep 2002, Vol. 9, Nr. 3, S. 25-28

Studies and Case Reports - Skin, Skin Infections

G. Yosipovitch; H. I. Maibach; Skin surface pH: a protective mantle; Department of Dermatology, UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA

H. Lambers; H. Pronk; S. Piessens; E. Voss; Natural human skin surface is on average below 5; Sara Lee Houshold and Bodycare Research; The Hague; NL

Psoriasis

A. Philipp; G. K. Wolf; B. Rzany; H. Dertinger; E. G. Jung; Interferential current is effective in palmar pso-riasis: an open prospective trial; European Journal of Dermatology; 2000, 10: 195-8

Idiopathic Hyperhidrosis

E. Hölzle, et al.; Guideline of the German Society of Dermatology: recommendations on tap water iontophoresis; 11/11/2008


Studies and Case Reports – Injuries, Wound Treatment

Wound Treatment, Burns

M. O. Ullah; A study to detect the efficacy of microcurrent therapy on pressure ulcers; Proceedings of Pa- kistan Academy of Sciences; 2007; 44(4): S. 281-287

S. Young; S. Hampton; M. Tadej; Study to evaluate the effect of low-intensity pulsed electrical currents on levels of oedema in chronic non-healing wounds; Journal of wound care; 2011 Aug, Vol. 20, Nr. 8, S. 368- 373

Pamela E. Houghton, Cynthia B. Kincaid, Marge Lovell, Karen E. Campbell, David H. Keast, M. Gail Woodbury and Kenneth A. Harris; Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Chronic Leg Ulcer Size and Appear-ance; Physical Therapy: Journal of The American Physical Therapy Association, 2003 Jan, Vol. 83 Nr. 1, S. 17-28

R. Karba, D. Semrov, L. Vodovnik et al.; DC electrical stimulation for chronic wound healing enhancement. Part 1. Clinical study and determination of electrical field distribution in the numerical wound model; Bio-electrochemistry and Bioenergetics; 1997; 43: S. 265-270

P. J. Carely, S. F. Wainapel; Electrotherapy for acceleration of wound healing: low intensity direct current; Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; 1985; 66: S. 443-446

Pain Reduction

Mustafa Oncel, Sureyya Sencan, Hakan Yildiz, Necmi Kurt; Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain management in patients with uncomplicated minor rib fractures; European Journal of Cardiotho- racic Surgery; 2002; S. 13–17; Elsevier

Edema

S. Young; S. Hampton, BSc; M. Tadej; Study to evaluate the effect of low-intensity pulsed electrical cur- rents on levels of oedema in chronic non-healing wounds; Journal of wound care; 2011 Aug, Vol. 20, Nr. 8, S. 368-373

Hypertension

A. Vlasov, A. Safronov, V. Vladimirsky, A. Vladimirskaya, M. Umnikova; Efficiency of dynamic electroneuro- stimulation in patients with arterial hypertension; Ural state Medical Academy, Yekaterinburg, Russia; 2006; S. 1-2

V. I. Podzolkov; T. S. Mlnikova; I. A. Suvorova; L. I. Churganova; S. P. Starovoitova; Cranial electrostimulation - a new nondrug method of treating the initial stage of hypertension 1992; Terapeuticheskii Arkhiv; 64(1): S. 24-27

Josef Kowarschik; Physical Therapy; Vienna, Springer Verlag, 2. edition, 1957, pp. 119 and p. 30 5.8 Studies and Case Reports – Internal Medicine

Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Chronic Wounds

Bok Y. Lee, Noori AL-Waili, Dean Stubbs, Keith Wendell, Glenn Butler, Thia AL-Waili, Ali AL-Waili; 2010; Ul- tra-low microcurrent in the management of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic wounds: Report of twelve cases and discussion of mechanism of action; International Journal of medical sciences; 7(1): S. 29-35

Liver Diseases (Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, etc.)

D. N. Jemeljanov; A. V. Tumarenko; 2009; Transcranial Electro Stimulation in the treatment of chronic diffuse liver diseases; Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd Russian Academy of Sciences, I.P. Pavlovés In-stitut of Physiology; Centre of Transcranial Electro Stimulation (TSS); essay collection „Transcranial electro stimulation, clinical studies”, Bd. 3, ed. Prof. Dr. V. P. Lebedeva, Sankt-Petersburg 2009, p. 124-134.

Ulcers of the Stomach and Duodenum

V. P. Lebedev, Ya. S. Katsnelson, Yu. D. Zilber, M. V. Stepanova M. S., Transcranial electrostimulation of thebrain opioid structure, in the treatment of ulcerative disease, of the stomach and the duodenum; Uritski City Hospital No.18, Leningrad, USSR Sovetskaya Meditsina, 1990; no. 1, pp. 30-33.


Studies and Conventional Medicine

About the Studies and Case Collections Mentioned

These are a legal requirement. They are meant to protect consumers from misleading or suggestive advertising statements (which they are unable to verify due to lack of specialist knowledge) or statements making explicit promises or suggesting a specific outcome. Among other things, this includes mentions of studies, indications or particularly treatment successes.

All this is why we provide the respective notes for the sources mentioned. Many studies, case collections and investigations exist and are mentioned here. they do not all comply, however, with the gold standard defined by conventional medicine. This is obviously not an exhaustive list, but is a place to begin for those interested in studies behind microcurrent, biofeedback and neurofeedback.

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